What is Coronary artery disease (CAD)?

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common type of heart disease that occurs when the blood vessels (coronary arteries) that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked. This narrowing or blockage is typically caused by the buildup of plaque—a waxy substance made of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances—inside the arteries. As the plaque accumulates, it can restrict blood flow to the heart, leading to various symptoms and complications.

What are the risk factors of Coronary artery disease(CAD)?

  1. High cholesterol levels: Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol (often referred to as “bad” cholesterol) can increase the risk of plaque buildup in the arteries.
  2. High blood pressure: Hypertension can damage the arteries over time, making them more prone to developing plaque buildup.
  3. Smoking: Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that can damage the blood vessels and promote the formation of plaque.
  4. Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk of developing coronary artery disease due to elevated blood sugar levels that can damage the blood vessels.
  5. Obesity: Excess weight, particularly around the waist, can increase the risk of developing CAD.
  6. Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of regular physical activity can contribute to the development of risk factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and obesity.

What causes coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is primarily caused by the buildup of plaque—a combination of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances—in the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This buildup narrows or blocks the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart and increasing the risk of heart-related complications.

What are the forms of coronary artery disease?

Atherosclerosis: The most common form, characterized by the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, leading to narrowing or blockage.

Coronary Artery Stenosis: Refers to the narrowing of the coronary arteries, restricting blood flow to the heart.

Coronary Artery Spasm: Involves sudden, temporary tightening or constriction of the coronary arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and potential chest pain.

Coronary Microvascular Disease (CMD): Affects the smaller arteries of the heart and is often more challenging to diagnose, as it doesn’t always involve major blockages.

Coronary Thrombosis: Occurs when a blood clot forms in a coronary artery, potentially causing a heart attack if the blood flow is completely blocked.

Symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD)

  • Chest pain or discomfort (angina), which may feel like pressure, tightness, squeezing, or heaviness in the chest.
  • Pain, discomfort, or numbness in the arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, or back, which may radiate from the chest.
  • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or exertion.
  • Fatigue or weakness, even with minimal physical exertion.
  • Nausea, indigestion, heartburn, or abdominal pain.
  • Dizziness
  • Sweating, particularly cold sweats.
  • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  • Anxiety or a feeling of impending doom.

It’s important to note that some individuals with CAD may not experience any symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease.

What are warning signs of coronary artery disease?

Warning signs of coronary artery disease (CAD) include chest pain or discomfort (angina), shortness of breath, fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. These symptoms may indicate reduced blood flow to the heart and should prompt medical evaluation.

What are the 4 stages of Coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease (CAD) typically progresses through various stages, including:

  • Stage 1: Atherosclerosis: The development of fatty deposits (plaque) on the inner walls of the coronary arteries, narrowing them over time.
  • Stage 2: Stable Angina: Occurs when there is reduced blood flow to the heart during physical exertion or stress, leading to chest pain or discomfort that is usually predictable and manageable.
  • Stage 3: Unstable Angina: Involves more unpredictable and severe chest pain, often occurring at rest or with minimal exertion, indicating a higher risk of a heart attack.
  • Stage 4: Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): Complete blockage of blood flow to a part of the heart, resulting in damage to the heart muscle. This is a critical stage and requires immediate medical attention.

What is the new treatment for coronary artery disease?

Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Treatment: EECP is a non-invasive therapy used to improve blood flow to the heart in individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) or angina. During EECP treatment, inflatable cuffs are wrapped around the patient’s legs, which inflate and deflate in sync with the heartbeat. This process helps to increase blood flow to the heart muscle and improve oxygen delivery, reducing symptoms such as chest pain and shortness of breath. EECP is typically administered as a series of sessions over several weeks and is considered safe and well-tolerated for most patients.

Efficacy of EECP Treatment in Coronary artery disease

The efficacy of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) treatment in coronary artery disease (CAD) has been studied in various clinical trials and research studies. Overall, EECP treatment has shown promising results in improving symptoms and quality of life in patients with CAD, particularly those with refractory angina (chest pain that does not respond well to standard treatments).


Several studies have demonstrated that EECP can lead to significant reductions in angina frequency, severity, and medication use in patients with CAD. Additionally, EECP has been associated with improvements in exercise tolerance, cardiac function, and overall cardiovascular health.


While EECP is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, it may not be suitable for all patients with CAD, and individual outcomes can vary. Factors such as the severity of CAD, overall health status, and adherence to treatment protocols may influence the effectiveness of EECP therapy.


Overall, EECP can be a valuable treatment option for certain patients with CAD, particularly those who have not responded adequately to other treatments or angioplasty and bypass surgery.


Why choose Shanikrupa Heartcare Centre?

Shanikrupa Heartcare Centre offers advanced non-invasive treatments for coronary artery disease (CAD). Our state-of-the-art facilities and experienced medical team provide patients with effective alternatives to traditional invasive procedures. Through innovative approaches such as Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) therapy, we aim to improve blood flow to the heart, alleviate symptoms, and enhance overall cardiovascular health. Contact us today to learn more about our non-invasive CAD treatments and schedule a consultation with our expert cardiologists.”